Orthodontic Terms


A wire engaged in orthodontic attachments, affixed to the crowns of two or more teeth and capable of causing or guiding tooth movement.

Band (orthodontic)

A thin metal ring, usually stainless steel, which serves to secure orthodontic attachments to a tooth. The band, with orthodontic attachments welded or soldered to it, is closely adapted to fit the contours of the tooth and then cemented into place.  The archwire is then threaded through the attachment.


An orthodontic attachment that is secured to a tooth (either by bonding or banding) for the purpose of engaging an archwire.  Brackets can be fabricated from metal, ceramic or plastic.

Ceramic brackets

Crystalline, alumina, tooth-shade or clear synthetic sapphire brackets that are aesthetically more attractive than conventional metal attachments.

Class I

The jaws are proportional to one another and the molar teeth and canines fit well together.  Crowding or other malocclusions may be present.

Class II

The mandible is undersized relative to the upper jaw.  Commonly the upper incisors appear protrusive or “buck toothed”.

Class III

The mandible is oversized relative to the upper jaw.  Commonly causes an underbite or “bulldog bite”. <

Cleft lip or cleft palate

A birth defect forms when the branchial processes fail to fuse with the nasal process very early in gestation.  A cleft lip normally forms just to the side of the philtrum or the groove in the upper lip.  It may stop there or extend all the way back through the palate to the uvula.  A series of plastic surgery, orthodontic and oral surgical procedures will be required from infancy through young adulthood.


In a posterior crossbite the upper jaw is too narrow to fit the lower jaw.  The lower teeth overlap the upper teeth.  In an anterior crossbite the lower teeth protrude out beyond the upper teeth.  (bulldog bite).  In either case, orthodontic treatment is required because these conditions will cause excessive wear and cheek or lip biting.


Dental malalignment caused by inadequate space for the teeth.


The removal of cemented orthodontic bands.


The removal of the brackets and the adhesive from teeth.

Deciduous teeth

Commonly called baby teeth or primary teeth.


Removing or pulling unrestorable teeth or crowded teeth

Elastics (rubber bands)

Used to move teeth in prescribed directions.

Functional orthodontics

The orthodontic technique to modify jaw growth to harmonize the shape of the lower jaw to the upper jaw.  The best scientific research is not overly supportive of the effectiveness of functional orthodontics.  It will be used in this office for specific, achievable goals.


The tissue that surrounds the teeth, consisting of a fibrous tissue that is continuous with the periodontal ligament and mucosal covering.


Generic term for extraoral traction (attached around the back of the head) for growth modification, tooth movement and anchorage.  Commonly used if the top teeth stick too far out beyond the bottom teeth.


The process of acquiring representations of structures in either two or three dimensions.


A tooth is blocked from erupting into its normal position in the mouth.

invisible braces

Refers to several variations of orthodontics that are less visible than traditional metal braces.  Ceramic brackets, Invisalign, and lingual braces are included in this category.


Pertaining to the tongue. A term used to describe surfaces and directions toward the tongue.

Lingual Appliances

Orthodontic appliances fixed to the lingual surfaces of the teeth.


An oral condition characterized by teeth and/or jaws that do not fit together in an ideal manner.  May be unaesthetic or lead to abnormal wear of the teeth and difficulty maintaining proper hygiene.

Maxillary - maxilla

Of or pertaining to the upper jaw.  May be used to describe teeth, dental restorations, orthodontic appliances or facial structures.

Mandibular – mandible

Of or pertaining to the lower jaw.  May be used to describe teeth, dental restorations, orthodontic appliances or facial structures.


A dental specialist who has completed an advanced post-doctoral course, accredited by the American Dental Association, of at least two academic years beyond dental school in the special area of orthodontics.

Orthognathic surgery

Surgery to alter relationships of teeth and/or supporting bones, usually accomplished in conjunction with orthodontic therapy.


Vertical overlapping of upper teeth over lower teeth.


Horizontal overlap of the front teeth.  (commonly called overbite or buck teeth)

Primary teeth

Deciduous or baby teeth

Phase 1 orthodontic treatment or early orthodontic treatment

Treatment in the range of 7 to 11 years when there is a mixture of primary and permanent teeth.  In this office, normally reserved for crossbites or the management of erupting teeth in a crowded situation.  Intended to treat a specific problem and not all orthodontic concerns will be addressed.  A second phase of treatment is to be expected.

Phase 2 orthodontic treatment

The follow on treatment when an earlier Phase 1 treatment has been accomplished.


One jaw is too large compared to the other jaw.  Most commonly the mandible is too large which leads to an anterior crossbite or “bulldog” bite.


A permanent image, produced by ionizing radiation.  Sometimes called an X-ray after the most common source of image-producing radiation.  Cephalometric and panoramic radiographs are typically taken for orthodontic records.


Any orthodontic appliance, fixed or removable, used to maintain the position of the teeth following corrective treatment.


The passive treatment period following active orthodontic correction during which retaining appliances may be used.


One jaw is undersized compared to the other jaw.  Most commonly the mandible is undersized which makes it appear that the upper teeth protrude too far out.


An alternative to extraction of teeth to make room for alignment of crooked teeth.  Instead of removing a tooth, a small amount of enamel is removed from several teeth.

Sleep apnea

A medical condition characterized by long pauses in breathing during sleep.  Can lead to serious consequences ranging from poor sleep/chronic fatigue to death.  Treatment may range from changing sleep habits to positive pressure oxygen to surgical treatment.  For serious cases not amenable to more conservative treatment, the orthodontist and oral-maxillofacial surgeon can work together to position the jaws forward to position the tongue away from the airway.

Straight wire appliance

A variation of the edgewise appliance in which brackets are angulated to minimize multiple archwire bends.  Brackets and molar tubes have specific orientation in three planes of space.

TMJ or temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD)

A variety of interrelated conditions that involve the jaw joint and the associated muscles, ligaments, nerves and fascia.  Can include chronic or acute pain conditions, and disruption of mandibular function.  Certain malocclusions can predispose to TMD but it is not thought this is the primary cause.

Montebello Drive West
2575 Montebello Drive West,
Suite 101, Colorado Springs, CO 80918
Tel: (719) 268-7138
Fax: (719) 599-5107
Woodland Park
791 W Kelley's Rd,
Woodland Park, CO 80863
Tel: (719) 687-6129
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What our patients say...

We went to an evaluation at an orthodontist before this one and the price seemed kind of high so then I came to an evaluation here & not only was the price lower but immediately we felt very comfortable and loved the atmosphere of the office. The staff is wonderful, always on time & Dr. Bentele is a great Dr. - very knowledgeable, friendly & with excellent communication. I would recommend this practice to everyone!

We highly recommend Dr. Bentele and his practice. He is honest, friendly, skilled & timely - you name it. He and his staff are wonderful! Angela at the front desk is especially kind and helpful. Best of all - Dr. Bentele creates a wonderful outcome of beautiful teeth. I've experienced two other orthodontists with other children and Dr. Bentele definitely outshines all - in every way - even in cost! I can't speak highly enough about Bentele Orthodontics!

This office is extremely thorough in explaining all aspects of orthodontics from finances to procedures. I'm very confident in this office.

Dr. Bentele makes the patient feel comfortable with his skill and calm confidence. He's honest about the treatment needed and tries to keep the patient informed of the treatment.

Dr. Bentele is our orthodontist for our two children. He provided clear treatment plans with a practical approach. Dr. Bentele does all of the banding and bonding himself and the office appointments are appropriately scheduled. Our children get in and out quickly and the office is never overscheduled, resulting in short waits and unhurried treatment. We're very satisfied and would recommend our friends to see Dr. Bentele!

Dr. Bentele and all staff have been very professional and the cost was reasonable. The approach of not having braces on longer than necessary is one area where I have seen other children suffer (children who went to other orthodontists). The way Dr. Bentele explains what he is doing and why has been good for my daughter to learn the importance of her treatment. I appreciate Dr. Bentele's patience with us as we experienced a difficult financial time during the beginning of our process.